One of the eternal questions and the topic of conversation in the circles of the flight safety rating wings that fly or you intend to buy. As there are several types of classification according to different tests (standards) often leads to confusion and mixing concepts: class security and wings, and performance. NTI is one of these criteria does not define the category of the wings, but parachutes are categorized by how they respond in a given sutuacijama and / or circumstances, and are grouped into classes. That is precisely the theme of this text. standards to which they are commonly categorized wings (and most often encountered by us) are AFNOR (ACPUL) and DHV. Among them there are great similarities in testing, but some minor differences. AFNOR standard was initiated by French Institute for Standards. Often you can find even the ACPUL (Association des Constructers de Parapente Ultra Legers) who founded the Association of European manufacturers, and was a forerunner of AFNOR. AFNOR is widely accepted in the world. DHV (Deutscher Verband Hangegleiter) is a German standard, and in fact was originally intended for the standardization of delta wings, or dragon.

With the advent of paragliding began to be used on parachutes. Worldwide, there are several local standard (in Europe is known Swiss SHV), but most admitted flying association AFNOR or DHV. For example, in the UK (BHPA) are both full of standards, in Brazil, AFNOR, etc. We interesting neighboring Slovenia also working on its own standard. However AFNOR standard leads as regards extent, while DHV tightly bound for Germany (only recognized in that country). On the other hand, Germany's largest industry is concentrated paragliding equipment and a huge number of pilots, the DHV is so strong and seems to be an indispensable standard AFNOR-in contrast to the established manufacturers of the various European countries. There is an initiative to unify the two standards into a single European standard, so called. CEN, but we'll wait some more. Both standards recognize three levels (categories) based on wing wing behavior in handling. Internationally used terms: Beginner, Sport and Competition. Previously used terminology Beginner, Intermediate and Competition, but the development of a modern wing construction was progressing, so the term Beginner (beginner) lost.

AFNOR under the scheme we have three levels: Standard, Performance, and Competition, DHV is used as labels for levels 1, 2 and 3 Furthermore DHV scheme used between the stages of "1/2 or 1-2" and "2/3 or 2-3." This means that the DHV 1/2 category somewhere between the Standard and Performance in AFNOR's, and it is not uncommon to find a wing at the AFNOR-classified as standard, while the standard for DHV 1/2. Of course, this all up now refers to the wings to fly autonomously, while the tandem wings (two wings) there is a separate criterion for such a wing. Besides the wings, and tests are carried out on the seats and the spare parachute, but not as complex as the wings, and I will now deal with them. Perhaps one of the following numbers LC. Testing of both standards imply testing of materials and the load behavior in flight. Load testing is conducted to determine the strength of materials in static and dynamic loads. Simulations to examine the static load on the wings of the material deformation sash (sashes) and dynamic loads of research on the impact of growth G-forces on the wing (eg spirals). Experiential reach the specifications for the rope, cloth and seams that are accepted by manufacturers, so that the materials used for manufacturing, purpose-built to last and after many hours of use. Thus, the materials are overselling, or made ??stronger and more durable than they should be, that they vek lengthy duration and increase safety.

Regardless, many manufacturers' data for cloth and ropes after how many hours should undergo a test or replace the cords (especially competitive cords without protective sheath). behavior tests wings in flight and during various maneuvers consisting of a predetermined number of flight tests and maneuvers that conducted a pilot test. The rating for the behavior of the wings depends on the speed at sunrise and handling (demands) for a particular maneuver that caused the test pilot. The difference in opinions between DHV and AFNOR standards in the following. AFNOR uses precisely defined 17 different maneuvers (tests) on each wing, while allowing DHV test pilot to further investigate all the details and peculiarities that would wing could be exposed to certain maneuvers, and that it believes is necessary. For these reasons, the DHV standard is demanding, but also more subjective than AFNOR-which is precisely defined. The entire test, with two cameras, the spacecraft in the air and on land with a strong telephoto lens. Thus, the record all the details of test flights and wing reaction, and can be analyzed in detail and accurately classify the characteristics of a wing. Observed tilt angles of the wings forward and backward (in stupnjvima), duration, expressed in degrees of rotation, and elapsed time during a particular maneuver, these side effects occurred during the tests. We also observed the behavior of the wings in takeoff and landing. Detail the specific conditions in which tests are performed and results obtained are classified into categories according to DHV and AFNOR standard for each maneuver. Since the wing has passed all tests, the final category receives the one maneuver that is classified with the highest mark. This means that the wing, which is the DHV standard passed all tests except one grade 1 rated grade 1-2, eventually being categorized as a DHV 1-2. Not to mention all the tests, here's an example.

When testing jednostranskog closure is seen out and parachute to open fully, and for how many degrees of swivel open and at what speed. So the wings that open to get inside the 180o mark this test DHV 1 or 1-2 depending on the speed of opening, one that will be open between 180o and 360o receive DHV 2 or 2-3, and wings with a turn over 360o kalsificiraju as DHV 3 or competition. AFNOR As already mentioned AFNOR recognizes 3 levels and a tandem / dual category and is based on 17 tests. All wings must undergo tests when those tests which are suitable for each category, and which is considered to be a model of the wing. This means that a demanding (Competition) wings of some tests (negative, unbalanced coated flight, etc.) do not have to go through. A clearer view of this day is in the comparison table. Categories include: Standard - intended for beginners and advanced beginners (as old ACPUL 12-A grade) PERFORMANCE - intended for advanced pilots (second lap) COMPETITION - intended only for professional / test pilots (the wings not tested at all maneuvers) BIPLACE - letena intended for two (tandem wing) DHV DHV (aka Gutesiegel test) also has three categories: 1, 2 and 3, the intermediate category 1/2 and 2/3. It consists of 13 different tests that wing has to go regardless of the target market. Performance and characteristics danjašnjih 1 and 1/2 leaves are very close to the former advanced wings with greater security.

High levels of active and passive safety allows the flying wings of those who occasionally fly for fun and recreation without ambition for some advanced flying. On the other hand there are the wings of the DHV 2 class, which require more active and flying, and provide a more experienced pilot flight characteristics of the same competition (Competition, DHV 3) the wings of a few years ago. categories are: DHV 1 - Wings very easy flight characteristics which forgives mistakes pilots DHV 1/2 - a simple wing flight characteristics DHV 2 - flight wings demanding dynamic properties and possible reactions to turbulence and pilot errors DHV 2/3 - Wings very demanding flight characteristics and possible rapid reaction to turbulence and pilot errors. Only for experienced pilots who fly frequently. DHV 3 - Wings very demanding flying characteristics and possible very rapid reactions to turbulence and pilot errors, give the pilot very little room for correction. Only for very experienced and professional pilots. BIPLACE - mark for the wings to fly in two (tandem wing) The goal of both standards is to refer it to the pilot that the experience needed to fly a particular model of the wing. The test results are not clear or the character of the security division of the security category, but rather a statement of the required skills and experience to successfully pilot a flying wing. In extremely turbulent conditions, most of the wings category 1 or Standard will act as if the washing machine (I do not know you, but I can not seem to lie washing machine), regardless of our response, then the safest nor the wings are not spared from this, and give us their other than a safe flight in all conditions.

Of course, one of the important things when selecting a wing and our weight. All today's wings are made ??in 3 or 4 sizes (some even 5) for different weight pilots. Thus, for both testing and implementing standards for each model in all sizes, and suggests the optimal weight. Leaf size is suitable for a range of loads, ie the lower and upper limit load (min and max). The most commonly cited figures for the total load entering the pilot, all equipment (seat, reserve parachute, helmet, instruments, etc.) and the weight of the wing. To find out how much the total weight of the simplest is to put a backpack on your back (with all the equipment we carry in the air) and static on the scale. Progress What complicates the whole thing is progress or do you progress. We are now in the third generation of test schemes by AFNOR-in, and believed to be the beginning derinirana in the 90s, when he represented. The development of computer modeling of new wing is unchanged and technology development, so that manufacturers improve the design and construction of the wings gradually developed a scheme of tests, because the wings are to achieve faster, more flexible, with better finesse, etc., while safer and easier to handle .

It is not surprising that wing, which was designed with the intention for advanced flying and experienced pilots, is classified as a standard. It is essential that high capacity of a wing, in the category in which it is not expected, pilots are not intimidated and do not challenge his wrong reaction. For this reason, in the Intermediate (Standard) category was made ??today at the lower division (early) and more (top end) intermedia, which gives a clearer picture of the wing for that level of experience. Wings in both these subcategories are intended for beginners as the first parachute, but with differentiation when handling. Sport Class wing is intended for experienced pilots with ambitions to fly cross country as the second lap and the start of serial class categories for recreational and sport flying. Characteristics of this category are very good finesse, speed range and easy operation, and are usually categorized as a DHV 2 or AFNOR Performance. We touched on this and a whole new topic or serial class wing SERIALL CLASS. 1999th manufacturers, test and competition pilots and professionals the industry agreed that all pilots should fly safely and enjoy at the same time.

This prompted a deeper change in the paragliding world, and formed the standard class or serial class. It was decided that to win the competition (to all national and international levels) need to fly a serial wing. That means you need to fly on the wing by category DHV up to 2/3, according to the AFNOR-Performance. With these wings DHV Class 3 and AFNOR Competition, and the wings outside classification, may participate in the competition, but out of competition and are left to test pilots. The desire to avoid unnecessary risks and accidents at competitions (which has now been an integral part), and pilots flying wings as well as "ordinary mortals". In any case, if we compare the modern and the wings of a few years ago in the same category, today We're flying a lot safer and better wing flight characteristics in every respect. Two seemingly disparate facts, safety and performance, combine the modern wing. It is interesting to observe how the development will extend further and wonder where the border. Just before the 10-odd years of paragliding equipment produced is less than 20 companies, and today we have over the 60th The competition is sharp, and the market demands more and more. Remembering his first wing, without any nostalgia, I conclude that many times we get the modern flying wings, because the money we get safer and more capable, more permanent and wings made ??of quality materials.