What are the main determinants in the construction of paragliding wings? I think you all choir sang: on the one hand, performance and security on the other wing. This first, then performance - finesse, speed, maneuverability, agility ... are accomplished smanivanjem resistance, thinning profile wings, increasing the weight off, etc.., but at the expense of safety. In fact, the performance and security are two conflicting features of the laws of physics and aerodynamics.

However, we have seen (those recorded by godinica in its flight calendar) that are not so irreconcilable sides.Wing on from generation to generation are becoming safer, a performance is slowly but surely growing. How is this accomplished? In fact extremely difficult. On one hand the materials for making wings monitor progress technology and become thinner, stronger, more durable, but not enough to would have made more progress. The use of computers in the wing structure over the primacy of saving time and making more prototypes and conduct testing Real-wing flight and of other similar actions, and the air tunnels help solve the aerodynamic issues. Of course, there are already above-mentioned materials which allows making all the more complicated structure; ribs, joints, Border, leaf and rope connections, flange systems, speed and trim-a.

This development of new models can afford only the strong "players" remained a "paradise" follow the trends, as in any industry.

Let's go briefly to the history of the brand and its guest house (this is necessary, no complaints please!). With melancholy beats sweetish pop (yuck) the early 80s, appeared for the first paragliders, not exactly true, but derivatives parachute wings. It already know? Good, good. The first pilots adventure notice a spirit of some of the drawbacks of such a structure and a needle and primše end. Saciniše so usable wings with more finesse than three -3 (letters the figure). I know this?I do not care, I will tell the end of a litany. These are achieved increasing the surface of the wing by adding chambers. Handling and flight features were already mentioned at the level of finesse.

They paragliderski builders adept scientific approach, turned to proucavnju aerodynamics and found problems that were obstacles to progress (the same problems have remained to this day through the whole two decade). From this reasoning spawned the lateral stabilizers (two triangular pieces of cloth at each end of the wing), which have increased stability and handling, and reduce induced drag. There followed a period of rectangular wings with triangles on each side, and gradually the zaobljavala and became elliptical square.

In late 80's and throughout the expansion of solid techno beats, appeared and the first closed chamber at the edges of the wings. This is somewhat replaced the lateral stabilizers, but are not completely disappeared. The thinner edges of the wing and increases the weight off. The projection of the wings resemble the known form of English borebenog aircraft from II. World War II - a Spitefire. Instead of two risers, there are three, then four lines of rope. We can no longer possible to make a B-stall and ears (who has tried to do in one earTwist the two lines of rope knows what I'm talking about). The triangular stabilizers extinct in the next couple of years (although these archetypes in a wing

We are all of the force - a variety of Space, the Apache, Stellar ...). Followed by a period of "ironing" profiles, or all equally load balance across the surface of the wing, and this was accomplished greater number of ropes. Ironing profile is accomplished by getting better aerodynamics wings, with less resistance profiles, but increasing the number of cords grew and theirs, and so the total resistance. It also increases the number of chambers, as and distance from the pilot dome ropes to lengthen. The next step in are the so-called progress. V-Bar or diagonal ribs - partitions Commerce, as you please. It has been a significant shift towards modern wings what we know today. 1994-95. go to the market first such wings make a real boom. Primarily these were marked with wing performance, competition, 2-3/3 DHV, because they cried out for fixing the structural stability.

In the following years all the wings are made with a V-chambers, the competitive start-up. The advantages of bias ply bulkheads / ribs is mentioned in firmer and more stable structure. In other words, achieving the deployment of the load more evenly across the surface of the wing, with significantly reduced the number of ropes, smoother profile, improved aerodynamics, bla, bla. The only disadvantages are the higher cost of making something more complex construction and higher weight of the wing, which was offset by a smaller number of ropes.

In this review the development of the wing structure did not encompass much smaller details that are also involved in the progress towards a safer and better wings. Such a reduction of the opening angle of Commerce in relation to the front edge of the wing and the ground, separation of individual ropes supporting the individual tapes (Division A or B risers for easy take-off performance or the ears or B-cares). The so-called. STABILO Command (APCO), or additional ropes to control line that went to the very end (ears) wings, and pulling a stronger command further deform the edge of the wings, characteristic of the upper wings Advanceova the wing to reduce induced drag and a lot more. It should be and add (for now) abandoned flirtation with various fixed anchorage wings, either by inserting a rigid material or completely inflated wingsand prior to departure, a totally enclosed chamber.

Swiss manufacturer Ailes de K has launched the first lap with a closed chamber (40 % On each side), but mid-wing, but after the initial euphoria (stability, good performance, etc.). happened jednostransko complete closure, material was caught in the ropes, and a few spiral precipitously. This is similar to the effect of aircraft with one wing. Solution sought to insert solid material in front of the closed chamber. ITV, in addition to long, ten years ago is working on the wing with flaps on the openings chamber, something like valves, but with the same failure as the Ailes de K The most impressive wing with closed chambers at the very beginning was made by Harley with only one large hole in the middle. Today there is a prototype Turbo of Air Systems, which has already been discussed on pages Circus, which also has a fully enclosed chamber with two holes in the middle of the wing, but the constant pressure to keep the lap of two electric motors. For now shows interesting results, and development has slowed due to high costs.

Everything has been invented where to go, you ask? The answer is in a partially closed Chamber of openings along the wing. As you can see / hear / read Recently, there have appeared with wings closed chambers, but only at the ends of the wings, but the entire front edge. And, as things now stand, it becomes the norm. More and more manufacturers introduce this innovation in making new leaf in its program. What is it? Open chamber, what we know today, creating some resistance and impair aerodynamics of the wing. If they were totally ejected, and the front edge wing was closed along its entire length to be annulled. Of course it We can not do it to the wing then filled with air (maybe only pump or maybe Zemljane štramac). The solution is somewhere in between, in partial closing chamber. Here they present some problems. It is clear that the closure of a number of chamber reduces the total area of ??openings full air wing and this wing will be more difficult to lift during takeoff, and the slower will be the otvrati turbulence. Since only two closed chambers wings on each side of the early 90s, to New Argon fully closed with 8 chambers on each, side passed almost a decade, but the problem remained.

The good side closing all over the chamber is greater resistance to jednostransko sashes, but when it comes to closing is very difficult to re-charging air, especially if the material is caught in the ropes. This usually ends violent spiral, especially in competition wings. Following the development in 1999. Advance year in spring 2000. launched several Omega 5, racing prototypes with partially closed chambers along the entire wingspan. In the hands of Andy Heidigera, one of these prototypes PWC has won the 2000th and, of course, ignited a spark in the world of paragliding this design. No one certainly could not tell whether it was the merit of closed chamber or the quality of the pilots, but there was no doubt about it it looks very nice. Ponono returned interest in the closed chamber the entire length of the front edge of the wing.

As long as the wing is filled with air in the stable fly, no doubt, the concept closed chamber is areodinamicki cleaner than open. Creates the lower resistance, which then again results in better performance and stability. But not enough to close the half or third of the chamber to the wing had better characteristics of the reason that the numerous problems faced by designers face. The first is filling the air wing during takeoff, a smaller number of openings makes loading and wing are hard up, especially in the middle. The second problem the achievement of equal force and tension of the front edge of the closed Commerce along the wing span (meaning it can not be formed in the wing of the "wall" before departure). Furthermore, close / close the wings in the air and re-Opening. Consider the case of re-engagement by both wings after closing.

The progressive opening comes from the open side wings, or air switches to the wing, filling the closed side of the wings through the air from one open, gradually opening the closed side. This opening is quiet and controlled, and the wing returns to stable flight without a violent reaction.Since the transfer occurs within the air wing closed ventricular front edge of wing play no role. The sudden opening usually occurs after the close of the stronger turbulence or rapid air flow, and comes with a powerful sound. This is not a problem the safer types of wings, but some of this forcefully closing and may cause re-opening sashes, and even tie - Tangling the rope material. E here are conflicting opinions, some consider closed chambers violently preventing the collapse of the opening, while others just the opposite, the closed chamber deteriorate.

Advance is a leader, but soon other manufacturers followed the trend (Or progress?). However, to solve the problems mentioned before each opted for an independent path. Without wishing to favor some companies (although Many know that I am an ardent supporter of Advancea) I will start off in alphabetical order. And so, just the first Advance with Omega 5 (DHV 2-3). Its designers have opted for a variant to close any other chamber along the entire length wing (with the standard 4-5 closed chambers at the ends). To solve the problems of lower charge air wing, threw a few more opening and to the ends in the middle somewhere in between. Military jargon would say in strategically important places. Next is the Aire, the Rebel model (DHV 1-2/2). tactics applied in the closed one, and two open chambers, and so throughout the range. Airwave Revolution came out with two models of the wing. First Logic is (DHV 1) which has shamefully closed chambers at the ends of the wings and up to 25% from each side of the wing until the middle completely open. Each the fourth is closed, and between those three are trapezoidal in shape.

Logic as a Notice of the upper class and Magic (DHV 2-3) who came before. Magic uses the same scheme of closed chambers and Logic, with the same pattern, 1-4. However, the Magic is in each by 1/3 part zatovrenih chamber, while the 1/3 environment fully open chamber. Since the departure of Mr. Gina as a constructor, in Edel-in apparently was quiet, but he turned this innovation, and took the field with Excel-om (DHV 2-3). Excel has closed every third chamber and thus the entire wingspan. In Edel problem of lower flow Air solved by increasing the existing holes, so that at first glance say that Excel is not DHV 2-3. Excel was founded on the experience of Millennium model that remains in the prototype stage, but it can afford to buy. Firebird In recent years, winced from hibernation and re izbacje good models on the market. Will it be an Inspiration (DHV 2-3) new hope in FB's plumage, with partially closed chambers. He also uses a 1-4 schemeand the trapezoidal shape of the open chamber. This matrix was applied throughout along the front edge, but the environment where one was cut, and So we have 7 open chamber in the series. Complete the same scheme as used FB and Ozone, with its new Proton GT, who copied who would not know answer, but Ozone has long been tested GT, and initial reactions were more than favorable. The last in this series is Pro-design with the "hot stuff" to advertise a new project or model Pro-Ject (DHV 2-3). It is pro- uses a 1-3 scheme and there I learned at least for now.

As you might conclude by reading these lines, there are certain similarities in the design of these wings. This is not new, because copying is a widespread phenomenon in any industry, so in this our - Parajedrilicarskoj. However, each manufacturer has gone his own way in construction, and following their tradition. I have no doubt that the rest competition to give their answers to the question of closed chamber, or I know some already prepared, but not so much focused on publicity until you complete the new wing models. Also, the reader is not careful missed that, of the aforementioned wings, they are the most common DHV 2-3 category. There is a reason and it is very prosaic. It is easy to create a better security wing categories with a good performance, but must resort to new construction solutions for the highly capable and competitive wing. A response may be closed and the chamber. In the closed chamber carry vdiljivi progress, it is difficult to answer, but as things stand now before us is new era in the paragliding, the period of closed chamber, and therefore Get used to them.

I still think back to a conversation about the things of time before the new year and a half to two, with my friend and teacher, who then asked me "to What were you going with closed chambers, and when this good wing (Omega 5 op. a.) ", and I told him izbiflao that's a good structural solution to increase safety, performance, and blah, blah ... It would add and it looks really nice the wing, despite the gains in performance.